A mini review of fluoride-induced apoptotic pathways

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2018 Dec;25(34):33926-33935. doi: 10.1007/s11356-018-3406-z. Epub 2018 Oct 18.


Fluorine or fluoride can have toxic effects on bone tissue and soft tissue at high concentrations. These negative effects include but not limited to cytotoxicity, immunotoxicity, blood toxicity, and oxidative damage. Apoptosis plays an important role in fluoride-induced toxicity of kidney, liver, spleen, thymus, bursa of Fabricius, cecal tonsil, and cultured cells. Here, apoptosis activated by high level of fluoride has been systematically reviewed, focusing on three pathways: mitochondrion-mediated, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated, and death receptor-mediated pathways. However, very limited reports are focused on the death receptor-mediated apoptosis pathways in the fluoride-induced apoptosis. Therefore, understanding and discovery of more pathways and molecular mechanisms of fluoride-induced apoptosis may contribute to designing measures for preventing fluoride toxicity.

Keywords: Apoptosis; Death receptor; ER stress; Fluoride; Mitochondrion; Pathway.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Apoptosis / drug effects*
  • Apoptosis / physiology
  • Bursa of Fabricius / drug effects
  • Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress / drug effects*
  • Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress / physiology
  • Fluorides / pharmacokinetics
  • Fluorides / toxicity*
  • Fluorine / pharmacokinetics
  • Fluorine / toxicity
  • Humans
  • Kidney / drug effects
  • Liver / drug effects
  • Mitochondria / drug effects*
  • Mitochondria / metabolism
  • Spleen / drug effects


  • Fluorine
  • Fluorides