Movement disorders associated with neuronal antibodies

Acta Neurol Scand. 2019 Feb;139(2):106-117. doi: 10.1111/ane.13039. Epub 2018 Nov 6.


Movement disorders are one of the common clinical features of neurological disease associated with neuronal antibodies which is a group of potentially reversible disorder. They can present with hypokinetic or hyperkinetic types of involuntary movements and may have other associated neurological symptoms. The spectrum of abnormal movements associated with neuronal antibodies is widening. Some specific phenomenology of movement disorders are likely to give clue about the type of antibody, for instance, presence of paroxysmal dystonia (facio-brachial dystonic seizures) are a pointer toward presence of LGI-1 antibodies, and orofacial lingual dyskinesia is associated with NMDAR associated encephalitis. The presence of specific type of movement disorder allows high suspicion of testing of certain specific type of antibodies. In this review, we have discussed the various antibodies and the spectrum of movement disorder associated with them, highlighting if any distinct movement disorder allows the clinician to suspect type of antibody in a certain clinical context. We have also reviewed the treatment of the movement disorder associated with the neuronal antibodies. Physicians should have high index of suspicion of these disorders, as early institution of treatment options can lead to better outcome.

Keywords: chorea; dystonia; neuronal antibodies; stereotypy; tremor.

Publication types

  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Autoantibodies / immunology*
  • Autoimmune Diseases / etiology
  • Autoimmune Diseases / immunology*
  • Humans
  • Movement Disorders / etiology
  • Movement Disorders / immunology*
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins / immunology*
  • Neurons / immunology*


  • Autoantibodies
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins