Monitoring and modeling of household air quality related to use of different Cookfuels in Paraguay

Indoor Air. 2019 Mar;29(2):252-262. doi: 10.1111/ina.12513. Epub 2019 Jan 30.


In Paraguay, 49% of the population depends on biomass (wood and charcoal) for cooking. Residential biomass burning is a major source of fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) and carbon monoxide (CO) in and around the household environment. In July 2016, cross-sectional household air pollution sampling was conducted in 80 households in rural Paraguay. Time-integrated samples (24 hours) of PM2.5 and continuous CO concentrations were measured in kitchens that used wood, charcoal, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), or electricity to cook. Qualitative and quantitative household-level variables were captured using questionnaires. The average PM2.5 concentration (μg/m3 ) was higher in kitchens that burned wood (741.7 ± 546.4) and charcoal (107.0 ± 68.6) than in kitchens where LPG (52.3 ± 18.9) or electricity (52.0 ± 14.8) was used. Likewise, the average CO concentration (ppm) was higher in kitchens that used wood (19.4 ± 12.6) and charcoal (7.6 ± 6.5) than in those that used LPG (0.5 ± 0.6) or electricity (0.4 ± 0.6). Multivariable linear regression was conducted to generate predictive models for indoor PM2.5 and CO concentrations (predicted R2 = 0.837 and 0.822, respectively). This study provides baseline indoor air quality data for Paraguay and presents a multivariate statistical approach that could be used in future research and intervention programs.

Keywords: PM 2.5; CO; biomass; household air pollution; multiple linear regression; outdoor air pollution.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Air Pollution, Indoor / analysis*
  • Biomass
  • Carbon Monoxide / analysis*
  • Cooking / methods*
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Electricity
  • Environmental Monitoring
  • Housing
  • Humans
  • Linear Models
  • Paraguay
  • Particle Size
  • Particulate Matter / analysis*
  • Rural Population
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Wood


  • Particulate Matter
  • Carbon Monoxide