Introducing the "ChOLE" Classification and Its Comparison to the EAONO/JOS Consensus Classification for Cholesteatoma Staging

Otol Neurotol. 2019 Jan;40(1):63-72. doi: 10.1097/MAO.0000000000002039.


: Many previous attempts have been made to classify or categorize cholesteatomas. Recently, the European Academy of Otology and Neurotology and the Japanese Otological Society proposed a classification system based primarily on extension and complications. The European Academy of Otology and Neurotology/Japanese Otological Society consensus statement makes an effort to standardize reporting of surgical techniques. Internet-based multicenter studies are facilitated by increasing connectivity, but a mutually-agreed framework for reporting is necessary for results to be comparable across sites. New technologies compete with established standardized surgical approaches and need to be validated. It is definitively the right time to find a consensus on how to record and report surgical findings in cholesteatoma surgery. To stimulate this interesting discussion, we propose a ChOLE-classification system, which is based on the differentiation into extension (Ch), status of the ossicular chain at the end of surgery (O), complications (L), and degree of pneumatization and ventilation (E). A numeric rule is used to stage these cholesteatomas from I-III.

MeSH terms

  • Cholesteatoma / classification*
  • Cholesteatoma / pathology
  • Consensus
  • Ear Ossicles / pathology*
  • Ear Ossicles / surgery
  • Humans
  • Internet
  • Neurotology*