We describe a new form of mechanical pulmonary ventilation, low-frequency positive pressure ventilation with extracorporeal CO2 removal (LEPPV-ECCO2R). In a series of animal studies the rate of mechanical ventilation was 0.66, 1, 2, and 4 min-1 at a tidal volume of 3, 10, and 15 ml kg-1. We were able to maintain normal blood gases and normal lung volumes and lung mechanics even at the lowest ventilator rate with tidal volumes of 10 or 15 ml kg-1. Each experiment lasted 7 hours. Our data suggest a possible new dimension in the management of a difficult patient on mechanical pulmonary ventilation.