Background: Renal impairment (RI) is a negative prognostic factor in Multiple Myeloma (MM) and affected patients are often excluded from autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). However, it remains unclear whether historically inferior outcome data still hold true.
Methods: From a total of 475 eligible MM patients who had undergone ASCT between 1998 and 2016, 374 were included in this multi-centric retrospective cohort study. Renal function was determined both at the time of MM diagnosis and ASCT by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR according to the MDRD formula, RI defined as eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73m2). Patients were categorized into 3 groups: A) no RI diagnosis and ASCT, B) RI at diagnosis with normalization before ASCT and C) RI both at the time of diagnosis and ASCT. Log-rank testing was used for overall and progression-free survival (OS, PFS) analysis.
Conclusion: While severe RI at MM diagnosis confers a risk of shorter OS, MM progression after ASCT is not affected by any stage of renal failure. It can be concluded that ASCT can be safely carried out in MM patients with mild to moderate RI and should be pro-actively considered in those with severe RI.
Results: When comparing all groups, no difference in OS and PFS was found (p = 0.319 and p = 0.904). After further stratification according to the degree of RI at the time of diagnosis, an OS disadvantage was detected for patients with an eGFR < 45 ml/min/m2. PFS was not affected by any RI stage.
Keywords: Autologous stem cell transplantation; Multiple myeloma; Overall survival; Progression-free survival; Renal impairment.