The term spondyloarthritis refers to a group of immune-mediated diseases characterised by inflammation of the axial skeleton, peripheral joints, and entheses. Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is the most common and characteristic of these entities and even though it was first described over two centuries ago, the understanding of the underlying disease mechanism remains incomplete. It is known that around 40% of patients with AS have subclinical bowel inflammation, suggesting that the origin of the disease could be in the gut. Also, more genes and new molecules have demonstrated a role in the pathogenesis of AS. In this review, we analyse the latest therapies for spondyloarthritis and the most relevant discoveries over the last three years, together with their implications for different aspects of the disease.
Keywords: Ankylosing spondylitis; management; pathogenesis; spondyloarthritis; spondyloarthropathy.