12-lipoxygenase (12-LOX) is one of several enzyme isoforms responsible for the metabolism of arachidonic acid and other poly-unsaturated fatty acids to both pro- and anti-inflammatory lipid mediators. Mounting evidence has shown that 12-LOX plays a critical role in the modulation of inflammation at multiple checkpoints during diabetes development. Due to this, interventions to limit pro-inflammatory 12-LOX metabolites either by isoform-specific 12-LOX inhibition, or by providing specific fatty acid substrates via dietary intervention, has the potential to significantly and positively impact health outcomes of patients living with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. To date, the development of truly specific and efficacious inhibitors has been hampered by homology of LOX family members; however, improvements in high throughput screening have improved the inhibitor landscape. Here, we describe the function and role of human 12-LOX, and mouse 12-LOX and 12/15-LOX, in the development of diabetes and diabetes-related complications, and describe promise in the development of strategies to limit pro-inflammatory metabolites, primarily via new small molecule 12-LOX inhibitors.
Keywords: Inflammation; Lipoxygenase; Lipoxygenase inhibitors; Type 1 diabetes; Type 2 diabetes-related complications.
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