Adolescents and young adults (AYAs) affected by chronic immunological disease: A tool-box for success during the transition to adult care

Clin Immunol. 2018 Dec;197:198-204. doi: 10.1016/j.clim.2018.10.010. Epub 2018 Oct 19.


Adolescence is a time of physical, psychological and social changes between childhood and adulthood. All adolescents and young adults (AYAs) are in transition and experience key underlying processes that will influence their later life. It is a critical period, particularly for AYAs with a chronic medical condition. Diseases can start at any point during adolescence. The transition of care will concern health care providers, as well as more unexpected actors such as social workers, teachers, business managers and the family. In this review, we focus on transition in primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) and autoimmune diseases (AIDs). We describe the challenges and needs of transition in the field. Questions that AYAs with PID and/or AID must face during transition in their familial, professional and personal life are discussed. We expose a practical, AYA centered approach to help physicians in their daily practice, and we propose a position for the future.

Keywords: Adolescent; Autoimmune diseases; Primary immunodeficiencies; Transition of care; Young adults.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Autoimmune Diseases / therapy*
  • Chronic Disease
  • Humans
  • Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes / therapy*
  • Transition to Adult Care*
  • Young Adult