Bioactive Compounds in Kimchi Improve the Cognitive and Memory Functions Impaired by Amyloid Beta

Nutrients. 2018 Oct 20;10(10):1554. doi: 10.3390/nu10101554.


This study investigated the abilities of kimchi and its bioactive compounds to ameliorate amyloid beta (Aβ)-induced memory and cognitive impairments. Mice were given a single intracerebroventricular injection of Aβ25-35, followed by a daily oral administration of capsaicin (10 mg·kg-bw⁻1), 3-(4'-hydroxyl-3',5'-dimethoxyphenyl)propionic acid (50 mg/kg bw), quercetin (50 mg/kg bw), ascorbic acid (50 mg/kg bw), or kimchi methanol extract (KME; 200 mg/kg bw) for 2 weeks (n = 7 per group). Carboxymethylcellulose was used as a vehicle for the normal and control groups. Behavioral task tests showed that the learning and memory abilities were significantly waned by the injected Aβ25-35, but these cognitive deficits were recovered by the administrated KME and kimchi bioactive compounds (p < 0.05). The reactive oxygen species, peroxynitrite, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances levels were lower, and the glutathione level was higher, in the KME and bioactive compound groups than in the control group (p < 0.05). In the KME and bioactive compound groups, the protein expression levels of antioxidant enzymes (nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2-regulated superoxide dismutase-1 and glutathione peroxidase) were increased, whereas those of inflammation-related enzymes (nuclear factor-kappaB -regulated inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2) were decreased (p < 0.05). Thus, the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties of bioactive compounds-rich kimchi might help to attenuate the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease.

Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; amyloid beta; behavioral test; cognitive deficits; inflammation; kimchi; oxidative stress.

MeSH terms

  • Amyloid beta-Peptides / metabolism*
  • Animals
  • Cognition / drug effects*
  • Cognitive Dysfunction / drug therapy
  • Fermented Foods / analysis*
  • Male
  • Memory / drug effects*
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred ICR
  • Neuroprotective Agents / pharmacology
  • Phytochemicals / chemistry
  • Phytochemicals / therapeutic use*


  • Amyloid beta-Peptides
  • Neuroprotective Agents
  • Phytochemicals