Elevated Serum Cytokines and Trichomonas vaginalis Serology at Diagnosis Are Not Associated With Higher Gleason Grade or Lethal Prostate Cancer

Clin Genitourin Cancer. 2019 Feb;17(1):32-37. doi: 10.1016/j.clgc.2018.09.022. Epub 2018 Oct 4.


Background: Inflammation and infections have been associated with prostate cancer progression. We assessed whether elevated serum cytokines or T. vaginalis seropositivity at the time of diagnosis was associated with higher grade or lethal prostate cancer.

Patients and methods: Men with localized or metastatic prostate cancer were included in this study. Cytokine serum levels including interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (CCL-2), tumor necrosis factor α, and growth-regulated oncogene α (CXCL-1) using a multiplex enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and T. vaginalis serology were measured in blood samples at diagnosis.

Results: A total of 324 patients were identified at time of localized disease and 118 at time of metastatic disease. Of the 189 patients with localized disease and clinical follow-up data (median, 73 months), 28 developed lethal disease. There was no association between circulating cytokine levels above median concentrations nor T. vaginalis seropositivity and risk of intermediate- to high-risk or lethal prostate cancer.

Conclusion: Higher levels of serum cytokine levels and T. vaginalis seropositivity at diagnosis are not associated with high-grade or lethal prostate cancer and do not aid risk stratification of localized prostate cancer.

Keywords: Cytokine level; Lethal prostate cancer; Prognostic biomarker and inflammation; Prostate cancer; Trichomonas vaginalis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis*
  • Cohort Studies
  • Cytokines / blood*
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neoplasm Grading*
  • Prognosis
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / blood
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / parasitology
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology*
  • Seroepidemiologic Studies
  • Trichomonas Infections / complications*
  • Trichomonas Infections / parasitology
  • Trichomonas vaginalis / physiology


  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Cytokines