Initial catabolism of aromatic biogenic amines by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO: pathway description, mapping of mutations, and cloning of essential genes

J Bacteriol. 1987 Jun;169(6):2398-404. doi: 10.1128/jb.169.6.2398-2404.1987.


Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 was able to utilize several aromatic biogenic amines as sole sources of carbon or nitrogen. These included the phenethylamines tyramine and dopamine and the phenethanolamines octopamine, synephrine, and norepinephrine. Initial catabolism of the phenethylamines was mediated by a membrane-bound tyramine dehydrogenase which produced 4-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (4HPAL) with tyramine as the substrate. The enzyme was induced by growth with both classes of amines. Initial catabolism of octopamine (except when present as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen) was mediated by a soluble enzyme with activity against the phenethanolamines but not against tyramine or dopamine. The product of the reaction with octopamine as substrate was also 4HPAL. Addition of NAD to reaction mixtures yielded 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid and NADH. These activities, octopamine hydrolyase and 4-HPAL dehydrogenase (measured as a combined activity, OCAH-4HPALDH), were only induced by growth with phenethanolamines. However, the combined activities were not observed in extracts from cells grown with octopamine as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen, suggesting that an alternate pathway is used under this growth condition. Two independently isolated mutant strains were unable to utilize tyramine as a sole source of carbon or nitrogen. These mutants were also unable to utilize dopamine but grew at wild-type rates on the phenethanolamines. The mutations were mapped at about 70 min on the PAO1 chromosome with the chromosome-mobilizing plasmid R68.45, and both were linked to the catA1, mtu-9002, tyu-9009, and puuE mutations. DNA complementing both of the mutations was cloned on a single BamHI fragment approximately 13.8 kilobase pairs in length. Analysis of a subcloned fragment showed that the two mutations were in different genes.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Biogenic Amines / metabolism*
  • Chromosome Mapping
  • Cloning, Molecular
  • Conjugation, Genetic
  • DNA Restriction Enzymes
  • Dopamine / metabolism
  • Genes, Bacterial*
  • Mutation
  • Octopamine / metabolism*
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa / genetics
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa / metabolism*
  • Tyramine / metabolism*


  • Biogenic Amines
  • Octopamine
  • DNA Restriction Enzymes
  • Dopamine
  • Tyramine