The correct assembly of ribosomes from ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and ribosomal proteins (RPs) is critical, as indicated by the diseases caused by RP haploinsufficiency and loss of RP stoichiometry in cancer cells. Nevertheless, how assembly of each RP is ensured remains poorly understood. We use yeast genetics, biochemistry, and structure probing to show that the assembly factor Ltv1 facilitates the incorporation of Rps3, Rps10, and Asc1/RACK1 into the small ribosomal subunit head. Ribosomes from Ltv1-deficient yeast have substoichiometric amounts of Rps10 and Asc1 and show defects in translational fidelity and ribosome-mediated RNA quality control. These defects provide a growth advantage under some conditions but sensitize the cells to oxidative stress. Intriguingly, relative to glioma cell lines, breast cancer cells have reduced levels of LTV1 and produce ribosomes lacking RPS3, RPS10, and RACK1. These data describe a mechanism to ensure RP assembly and demonstrate how cancer cells circumvent this mechanism to generate diverse ribosome populations that can promote survival under stress.
© 2018 Collins et al.