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. 2018 Oct 10;11:1645-1658.
doi: 10.2147/IDR.S173867. eCollection 2018.

Antibiotic Resistance: A Rundown of a Global Crisis

Free PMC article

Antibiotic Resistance: A Rundown of a Global Crisis

Bilal Aslam et al. Infect Drug Resist. .
Free PMC article


The advent of multidrug resistance among pathogenic bacteria is imperiling the worth of antibiotics, which have previously transformed medical sciences. The crisis of antimicrobial resistance has been ascribed to the misuse of these agents and due to unavailability of newer drugs attributable to exigent regulatory requirements and reduced financial inducements. Comprehensive efforts are needed to minimize the pace of resistance by studying emergent microorganisms, resistance mechanisms, and antimicrobial agents. Multidisciplinary approaches are required across health care settings as well as environment and agriculture sectors. Progressive alternate approaches including probiotics, antibodies, and vaccines have shown promising results in trials that suggest the role of these alternatives as preventive or adjunct therapies in future.

Keywords: alternative therapies; antibiotics; evolution; multidrug resistance.

Conflict of interest statement

Disclosure The authors report no conflicts of interest in this work.


Figure 1
Figure 1
Drivers of antibiotic resistance transmission.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Various mechanisms of antibiotic resistance, including drug efflux with the help of efflux pump, enzymatic modifications of the antibiotic, enzymatic breakdown of the antibiotics, and modification in the target sites.

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