Starch-Flavor Complexation Applied to 2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline

J Agric Food Chem. 2018 Nov 7;66(44):11718-11728. doi: 10.1021/acs.jafc.8b04133. Epub 2018 Oct 29.


The pleasant popcorn-like smelling compound 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP) occurs naturally in many foods but is scarcely used as a flavoring agent due to its great instability. In this work, we evaluate the potential of high amylose corn starch to complex and stabilize 2AP. The methodology was first optimized using model compounds, 2-acetylpyridine and 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline, and then applied to 2AP. Complexes were successfully prepared and characterized using X-ray diffraction, gas chromatography, and differential scanning calorimetry. Loadings of up to 0.504 (±0.071)% 2AP were achieved, and storage studies showed that over half of the flavor was retained after 2 weeks at 0% relative humidity. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that 2AP can form amylose inclusion complexes and may lead to a method to effectively stabilize this labile aroma compound.

Keywords: 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline; 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline; 2-acetylpyridine; X-ray diffraction; amylose inclusion complex; complexation; differential scanning calorimetry; stabilization; starch.

MeSH terms

  • Amylose / chemistry
  • Calorimetry, Differential Scanning
  • Chromatography, Gas
  • Flavoring Agents / chemistry*
  • Pyrroles / chemistry*
  • Starch / chemistry*
  • X-Ray Diffraction


  • Flavoring Agents
  • Pyrroles
  • Starch
  • Amylose
  • 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline