Purpose: Adaptive antitumor immunity following ablative radiotherapy (ART) is attenuated by host myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC), tumor-associated macrophage (TAM), and regulatory T-cell (Treg) infiltrates. We hypothesized treatment with ART and a secondary mitochondrial-derived activators of caspase (SMAC) mimetic could reverse the immunosuppressive lung cancer microenvironment to favor adaptive immunity.
Experimental design: To evaluate for synergy between ART and the SMAC mimetic Debio 1143 and the dependence upon CD8+ T cells and TNFα, we used LLC-OVA syngeneic mouse model of lung cancer and treated them with Debio 1143 and/or ART (30 Gy) with or without anti-CD8, anti-TNFα, or anti-IFNγ antibodies. Tumor-infiltrating OVA-specific CD8+ T cells, Tc1 effector cells, MDSCs, TAMs, and Tregs, were quantified by flow cytometry. Tc1-promoting cytokines TNFα, IFNγ, and IL1β and the immunosuppressive IL10 and Arg-1 within LLC-OVA tumor tissue or mouse serum were measured by RT-PCR and ELISA.
Results: ART delayed tumor growth, and the addition of Debio 1143 greatly enhanced its efficacy, which included several complete responses. These complete responders rejected an LLC-OVA tumor rechallenge. ART and Debio 1143 synergistically induced a tumor-specific, Tc1 cellular and cytokine response while eliminating immunosuppressive cells and cytokines from the tumor microenvironment. Depletion of CD8+ cells, TNFα, and IFNγ with blocking antibody abrogated synergy between ART and Debio 1143 and partially restored tumor-infiltrating MDSCs.
Conclusions: Debio 1143 augments the tumor-specific adaptive immunity induced by ART, while reversing host immunosuppressive cell infiltrates in the tumor microenvironment in a TNFα, IFNγ, and CD8+ T-cell-dependent manner. This provides a novel strategy to enhance the immunogenicity of ART.
©2018 American Association for Cancer Research.