Girls and women with Turner syndrome face a lifelong struggle with both congenital heart disease and acquired cardiovascular conditions. Bicuspid aortic valve is common, and many have left-sided heart obstructive disease of varying severity, from hypoplastic left-sided heart syndrome to minimal aortic stenosis or coarctation of the aorta. Significant enlargement of the thoracic aorta may progress to catastrophic aortic dissection and rupture. It is becoming increasingly apparent that a variety of other cardiovascular conditions, including early-onset hypertension, ischemic heart disease, and stroke, are the major factors reducing the life span of those with Turner syndrome. The presentations and management of cardiovascular conditions in Turner syndrome differ significantly from the general population. Therefore, an international working group reviewed the available evidence regarding the diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases in Turner syndrome. It is recognized that the suggestions for clinical practice stated here are only the beginning of a process that must also involve the establishment of quality indicators, structures and processes for implementation, and outcome studies.
Keywords: AHA Scientific Statements; Turner syndrome; aortic aneurysm; genetics; heart diseases; pregnancy.