Gender Disparities Among Adult Recipients of Bystander Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in the Public

Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2018 Aug;11(8):e004710. doi: 10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.118.004710.


Background: Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (BCPR) improves survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), yet BCPR rates remain low. It is unknown whether BCPR delivery disparities exist based on victim gender. We measured BCPR rates by gender in private and public environments, hypothesizing that females would be less likely than males to receive BCPR in public settings, with an associated difference in survival to hospital discharge.

Methods and results: We analyzed data from adult, nontraumatic OHCA events within the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium registry (2011-2015). Using logistic regression, we modeled the likelihood of receiving BCPR by gender, including patient-level variables, stratified by location. A cohort of 19 331 OHCAs was assessed. Mean age was 64±17 years, and 63% (12 225/19 331) were male. Overall, 37% of OHCA victims received bystander CPR. In public locations, 39% (272/694) of females and 45% (1170/2600) of males received BCPR ( P<0.01), whereas in private settings, 35% (2198/6328) of females and 36% (3364/9449) of males received BCPR ( P=NS). Among public OHCAs, males had significantly increased odds of receiving BCPR compared with females (odds ratio, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.05-1.53; P=0.01); this was not the case in the private setting (odds ratio, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.87-1.01; P=NS). Controlling for site, age, and race, BCPR was significantly associated with survival to hospital discharge (odds ratio, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.54-1.85; P<0.01); in this model, males had 29% increased odds of survival compared with females (odds ratio, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.17-1.42; P<0.01).

Conclusions: Males had an increased likelihood of receiving BCPR compared with females in public. BCPR improved survival to discharge, with greater survival among males compared with females.

Keywords: adult; cardiopulmonary resuscitation; infarction; myocardial; out-of-hospital cardiac arrest; patients.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation / adverse effects
  • Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation / methods*
  • Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation / mortality
  • Female
  • Healthcare Disparities*
  • Hospital Mortality
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest / diagnosis
  • Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest / mortality
  • Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest / physiopathology
  • Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest / therapy*
  • Patient Discharge
  • Registries
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Assessment
  • Risk Factors
  • Sex Factors
  • Time Factors
  • Treatment Outcome
  • United States / epidemiology
  • Young Adult