The intersection of tuberculosis (TB) with non-communicable diseases (NCDs), including diabetes mellitus (DM), chronic lung disease (CLD), and cardiovascular disease (CVD), has emerged as a critical clinical and public health challenge. Rapidly expanding NCD epidemics threaten TB control in low- and middle-income countries, where the prevention and treatment of TB disease remain a great burden. However, to date, the notion that TB may adversely impact NCD risk and severity has not been well explored. This review summarizes biomedical hypotheses, findings from animal models, and emerging epidemiologic data related to the progression of DM, CLD and CVD during and after active TB disease. We conclude that there is sufficient empirical evidence to justify a greater research emphasis on the syndemic interaction between TB and NCD.