Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has a dismal prognosis, and it is unclear whether its stromal infiltrate contributes to its aggressiveness. Here, we demonstrate that Dickkopf-3 (DKK3) is produced by pancreatic stellate cells and is present in most human PDAC. DKK3 stimulates PDAC growth, metastasis, and resistance to chemotherapy with both paracrine and autocrine mechanisms through NF-κB activation. Genetic ablation of DKK3 in an autochthonous model of PDAC inhibited tumor growth, induced a peritumoral infiltration of CD8+ T cells, and more than doubled survival. Treatment with a DKK3-blocking monoclonal antibody inhibited PDAC progression and chemoresistance and prolonged survival. The combination of DKK3 inhibition with immune checkpoint inhibition was more effective in reducing tumor growth than either treatment alone and resulted in a durable improvement in survival, suggesting that DKK3 neutralization may be effective as a single targeted agent or in combination with chemotherapy or immunotherapy for PDAC.
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