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. 2018 Oct 25;9(10):199.
doi: 10.1038/s41424-018-0067-7.

Increasing Dietary Fiber Intake Is Associated With a Distinct Esophageal Microbiome

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Free PMC article

Increasing Dietary Fiber Intake Is Associated With a Distinct Esophageal Microbiome

Yael R Nobel et al. Clin Transl Gastroenterol. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Introduction: There is increasing evidence that the microbiome contributes to esophageal disease. Diet, especially fiber and fat intake, is a known potent modifier of the colonic microbiome, but its impact on the esophageal microbiome is not well described. We hypothesized that dietary fiber and fat intake would be associated with a distinct esophageal microbiome.

Methods: We collected esophageal samples from 47 ambulatory patients scheduled to undergo endoscopy who completed a validated food frequency questionnaire quantifying dietary fiber and fat intake. Using 16S high-throughput sequencing, we determined composition of the esophageal microbiome and predicted functional capacity of microbiota based on fiber and fat intake.

Results: Among all samples, the most abundant phyla were Firmicutes (54.0%), Proteobacteria (19.0%), Bacteroidetes (17.0%), Actinobacteria (5.2%), and Fusobacteria (4.3%). Increasing fiber intake was significantly associated with increasing relative abundance of Firmicutes (p = 0.04) and decreasing relative abundance of Gram-negative bacteria overall (p = 0.03). Low fiber intake was associated with increased relative abundance of several Gram-negative bacteria, including Prevotella, Neisseria, and Eikenella. Several predicted metabolic pathways differed between highest and lowest quartile of fiber intake. Fat intake was associated with altered relative abundance of few taxa, with no alterations at the phylum level and no changes in microbiome functional composition.

Conclusions: Dietary fiber, but not fat, intake was associated with a distinct esophageal microbiome. Diet should be considered an important modifier of the esophageal microbiome in future studies. Studies are also needed to elucidate how the effects of dietary fiber on the esophageal microbiome may contribute to esophageal disease.

Conflict of interest statement

Conflict of interest

Guarantor of the article: Julian A. Abrams, MD, MS.

Specific author contributions: Y.R.N.—study concept and design, interpretation of data, manuscript preparation, critical revision of manuscript, approval of final draft submitted. E.J.S.—study conduct, interpretation of data, critical revision of manuscript, approval of final draft submitted. G.C.—study conduct, critical revision of manuscript, approval of final draft submitted. D.E.F.—analysis and interpretation of data, critical revision of manuscript, approval of final draft submitted. H.K.—analysis and interpretation of data, critical revision of manuscript, approval of final draft submitted. C.J.L.—study conduct, interpretation of data, critical revision of manuscript, approval of final draft submitted. N.C.T.—analysis and interpretation of data, critical revision of manuscript, approval of final draft submitted. J.A.A.—study concept and design, study conduct, analysis and interpretation of data, manuscript preparation, critical revision of manuscript, approval of final draft submitted.

Potential competing interests

None.

Figures

Fig. 1
Fig. 1. Relative abundances of esophageal Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were associated with dietary fiber intake.
a Mean relative abundances of all phyla in samples from patients in the lowest (Q1) and highest (Q4) quartiles of dietary fiber intake. b Increasing dietary fiber intake was associated with increasing relative abundance of Firmicutes and decreasing relative abundance of Proteobacteria (all subjects). p-values are adjusted for multiple comparisons
Fig. 2
Fig. 2. There were several differentially abundant taxa comparing subjects in the lowest and highest quartiles of fiber intake.
a Linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe) representation of differentially abundant genera, and b cladogram representation of all differentially abundant taxa in esophageal samples between subjects in the lowest quartile (Q1) compared to the highest quartile (Q4) of fiber intake
Fig. 3
Fig. 3. Functional changes to the esophageal microbiome were associated with fiber intake.
a Predicted metabolic pathways increased in lowest quartile (Q1) or highest quartile (Q4) of fiber intake. b Number of pathways increased in a given KEGG category in Q1 compared to Q4

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