Congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction (CNLDO) is a common condition causing excessive tearing or mucoid discharge from the eyes, due to blockage of the nasolacrimal duct system. Nasolacrimal duct obstruction affects as many as 20% children aged <1 year worldwide and is often resolved without surgery. Available treatment options are conservative therapy, including observation, lacrimal sac massage and antibiotics, and invasive therapy. Observation, combined with conservative options, seems to be the best option in infants aged <1 year. Meanwhile, in children aged >1 year, nasolacrimal probing successfully addresses most obstructions. However, the most favorable timing for probing remains controversial. To alleviate persistent epiphora and mucous drainage that is refractory to probing, repeat probing, silicone tube intubation, balloon catheter dilation or dacryocystorhinostomy can be considered as available treatment options. Our review aims to provide an update to CNDO management protocols.
Keywords: congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction; lacrimal apparatus; tears.