Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a worldwide health problem caused by resistance to insulin action. This chronic debilitating diseaseis preceded by a stage, known as prediabetes, in which a healthy lifestyle can delay the disease. The discovery of biochemical changes in prediabetes is important to identify individuals at risk of developing T2DM and in explaining disease pathogenesis. Adiponectin is secreted by fat cells and is linked with insulin resistance. Adiponectin levels are dysregulated in prediabetic subjects. This relationship had not been tested in Jordan. We recruited 130 subjects with prediabetes and 130 control subjects. We measured serum levels of adiponectin and genotyped subjects for three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the ADIPOQ gene; rs266729, rs1501299 and rs2241766. In multivariate analysis, we found that serum adiponectin lowers the risk of prediabetes (p = 0.002; odds ratio (OR), 0.764; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.646⁻0.905). The rs1501299 SNP of the ADIPOQ gene was associated with prediabetes in our population (p = 0.041). Specifically, in multivariate analysis, the GT genotype of rs1501299 increased the risk of prediabetes (p = 0.010; OR, 2.350; 95% CI, 1.231⁻4.486) as well as the TT genotype (p = 0.006; OR, 4.774; 95% CI, 1.551⁻14.693). Our findings indicate that serum adiponectin and SNPs in the ADIPOQ gene are associated with prediabetes in Jordan.
Keywords: ADIPOQ; adiponectin; diabetes mellitus; insulin resistance; prediabetes; rs1501299; single nucleotide polymorphisms.