Guarana seed extracts as a useful strategy to extend the shelf life of pork patties: UHPLC-ESI/QTOF phenolic profile and impact on microbial inactivation, lipid and protein oxidation and antioxidant capacity

Food Res Int. 2018 Dec;114:55-63. doi: 10.1016/j.foodres.2018.07.047. Epub 2018 Jul 31.


The antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of guarana seed extracts (GSE) added to pork patties were evaluated for 18 days storage at 2 ± 1 °C. Five treatments were prepared: i) without natural antioxidant [control (negative control)], ii) with BHT at 200 mg/kg (positive control), and iii) with three different concentrations: 250 mg/kg (guarana seed low dose-GSL), 500 mg/kg (guarana seed medium dose-GSM) and 1000 mg/kg (guarana seed high dose-GSH) of guarana extracts, respectively. The pH, instrumental colour (CIE L*, a*, b*), total viable counts (TVC), Pseudomonas spp. counts and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) counts, 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and carbonyl content were determined after 0, 7, 11, 15 and 18 days of storage period. The in vitro antioxidant activity together with the phenolic profile of GSE was also studied. Microbial analysis showed that GSE had no antimicrobial activity on pork patties. The untargeted UHPLC-ESI-QTOF approach confirmed the wide phenolic composition of GSE able to explain the antioxidant power (28.2 g/kg of phenolic equivalents). Low doses (GSL) of GSE were able to preserve the values of colour parameters, obtaining higher L*, a* and b* values during storage, which is reflected in the lowest colour differences during storage (ΔE*0-18 = 4.56). TBARS and carbonyls values in GSE added samples were lower than control and BHT ones. GSL and GSM provided better results than the synthetic antioxidant (0.08 and 0.07 vs 0.18 mg MDA/kg; 2.47 and 3.13 vs 3.23 nmol/mg, for GSL and GSM vs BHT, respectively). These findings show that GSE are very effective against colour deterioration, lipid and protein oxidation in pork patties and possessing the potential to be used as natural antioxidants.

Keywords: Colour enhancers; Oxidative stability; Paullinia cupana; Pork burgers Phenolic profile.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antioxidants* / chemistry
  • Antioxidants* / pharmacology
  • Bacteria / drug effects
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  • Dietary Fats / analysis
  • Dietary Proteins / analysis
  • Food Preservation / methods*
  • Food Storage
  • Meat* / analysis
  • Meat* / microbiology
  • Oxidation-Reduction
  • Paullinia / chemistry*
  • Phenols* / chemistry
  • Phenols* / pharmacology
  • Plant Extracts* / chemistry
  • Plant Extracts* / pharmacology
  • Seeds / chemistry
  • Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization
  • Swine


  • Antioxidants
  • Dietary Fats
  • Dietary Proteins
  • Phenols
  • Plant Extracts