Sexual and Social Network Correlates of Willingness to Self-Test for HIV Among Ever-Tested and Never-Tested Men: Implications for the Tanzania STEP Project

AIDS Care. 2019 Feb;31(2):169-176. doi: 10.1080/09540121.2018.1537466. Epub 2018 Oct 26.


We examined factors associated with HIV self-testing (HIVST) willingness among male ever-testers and never-testers who participated in a midpoint survey of a cluster randomized controlled HIV prevention trial in Dar es Salaam. Linear mixed binary logistic regression models were constructed to examine factors (demographic, HIV risk behavior, and sexual/social network) associated with willingness to self-test. Sixtyseven percent of 301 never-testers were willing to self-test for HIV compared to 72% 577 of ever-testers. Among never-testers, having discussed testing for HIV with a sexual partner was the only factor associated with HIVST willingness (2.36, 95% CI: 1.35-4.15). For evertesters, younger men were less willing to self-test than older men while men with higher education were more willing to self-test than less educated men. Having a moderate/great HIV risk perception decreased the odds of HIVST willingness relative to no risk perception (0.40, 95% CI 0.23-0.70) for ever-testers. Discussing HIV testing with a sexual partner and having been encouraged to test for HIV by a friend were associated with higher odds of being willing to self-test (2.22, 2.23; 95% CI 1.34-3.67, 1.14-4.39, respectively) among ever-testers. These findings suggest that HIVST willingness is highly acceptable among both male ever-testers and never-testers.

Keywords: HIV self-testing; Tanzania; men; never-testers; social network.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Educational Status
  • HIV Infections / diagnosis*
  • Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
  • Humans
  • Interpersonal Relations
  • Male
  • Patient Acceptance of Health Care*
  • Self Care
  • Sexual Behavior*
  • Sexual Partners
  • Social Networking*
  • Social Support
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Tanzania
  • Young Adult