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. 2018;46(5):735-746.
doi: 10.1007/s10745-018-0023-x. Epub 2018 Sep 1.

Reconstructing Ancient Hohokam Irrigation Systems in the Middle Gila River Valley, Arizona, United States of America

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Free PMC article

Reconstructing Ancient Hohokam Irrigation Systems in the Middle Gila River Valley, Arizona, United States of America

Zhu Tianduowa et al. Hum Ecol Interdiscip J. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

We explore the concept of scales to examine emerging irrigation realities, i.e., connecting more agents within larger spaces - relates to the complexity of irrigation systems. Modern hydraulic models allow the inclusion of emerging multi-scale issues over time, including social issues related to different spatial and temporal scales. We show that the time needed to manage irrigation efficiently relates to the size of a system. By reconstructing ancient Hohokam irrigation systems in Arizona, we identify how longer-term extension of spatial scales created management problems beyond the scope of available technology. This approach allows greater understanding of how stresses in daily irrigation management may have impacted longer-term societal stability.

Keywords: Arizona; Hohokam; Irrigation management; Middle Gila River; agency; levels of complexity; modelling.

Figures

Fig. 1
Fig. 1
Development of canals and settlements of GK, ST, GB, and SN systems (extracted from Woodson 2010)
Fig. 2
Fig. 2
Model schematic for GK system
Fig. 3
Fig. 3
Model schematic and water distribution (300 mm demand) for GB system
Fig. 4
Fig. 4
Model schematic for ST system
Fig. 5
Fig. 5
Model schematic and water distribution in SN system
Fig. 6
Fig. 6
Source of Red-on-buff products in Snaketown (extracted data from Kelly 2013)
Fig. 7
Fig. 7
Proportion of red-on-buff pottery exported from Snaketown to sites in MGR and Lower Salt River (data from Kelly 2013)

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References

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