Non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) is a condition characterized by intestinal and extra-intestinal symptoms related to the ingestion of gluten-containing foods in the absence of celiac disease and wheat allergy. The diagnosis is cumbersome and currently confirmed only by gluten withdrawal and double-blind placebo challenge protocols. There is great overlap in symptoms between NCGS and other functional gastrointestinal disorders, making a differential diagnosis difficult. The pathophysiology of NCGS is largely unclear, and there are contrasting data on the trigger of this condition. This review will highlight the state-of-the-art knowledge on NCGS and the key open questions.
Keywords: IBS; NCGS; diagnosis; gluten; wheat.