Recent advances in understanding non-celiac gluten sensitivity

F1000Res. 2018 Oct 11;7:F1000 Faculty Rev-1631. doi: 10.12688/f1000research.15849.1. eCollection 2018.


Non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) is a condition characterized by intestinal and extra-intestinal symptoms related to the ingestion of gluten-containing foods in the absence of celiac disease and wheat allergy. The diagnosis is cumbersome and currently confirmed only by gluten withdrawal and double-blind placebo challenge protocols. There is great overlap in symptoms between NCGS and other functional gastrointestinal disorders, making a differential diagnosis difficult. The pathophysiology of NCGS is largely unclear, and there are contrasting data on the trigger of this condition. This review will highlight the state-of-the-art knowledge on NCGS and the key open questions.

Keywords: IBS; NCGS; diagnosis; gluten; wheat.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Celiac Disease
  • Diagnosis, Differential
  • Diet, Gluten-Free
  • Food Hypersensitivity / diagnosis*
  • Food Hypersensitivity / diet therapy
  • Glutens / immunology*
  • Wheat Hypersensitivity


  • Glutens

Grant support

The study was supported in part by the Italian Ministry of Education, University, and Research and by the University of Bologna RFO to GB. GB is a recipient of an educational grant from Fondazione del Monte di Bologna e Ravenna (Bologna, Italy).