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. 2018 Oct 8;5(2):e000846.
doi: 10.1136/openhrt-2018-000846. eCollection 2018.

Smokeless Tobacco Use and Circulatory Disease Risk: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Free PMC article

Smokeless Tobacco Use and Circulatory Disease Risk: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Brian L Rostron et al. Open Heart. .
Free PMC article


Objective: Smokeless tobacco use is a public health issue throughout the world, but reviews and analyses of circulatory disease risks associated with smokeless tobacco use may be outdated or incomplete. This study provides a thorough and comprehensive review and meta-analysis of circulatory disease risks in high-income countries, including recently published study estimates.

Methods: We conducted a systematic review of studies of circulatory disease risks associated with smokeless tobacco use in Europe and North America that were identified from electronic databases and reference lists. Study estimates were extracted by region, smokeless tobacco use status, cigarette smoking status, and circulatory condition and combined in meta-analysis using a random-effects model. We used the Newcastle-Ottawa scale to assess study quality and risk of bias.

Results: We identified 17 relevant cohort studies, two pooled analyses, five case-control studies and one cross-sectional analysis. We found increased risk of heart disease (relative risk (RR) 1.17, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.27) and stroke (RR 1.28, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.62) among US smokeless tobacco users compared with non-users. Increased circulatory disease risk was not observed among Swedish smokeless tobacco users.

Conclusion: US smokeless tobacco users were found to have increased risk of heart disease and stroke.

Keywords: cardiovascular disease; heart disease; smokeless tobacco; stroke.

Conflict of interest statement

Competing interests: None declared.


Figure 1
Figure 1
Flow diagram for selection of studies for review.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Meta-analysis of ischaemic heart disease risk estimates for current smokeless tobacco users in Sweden and the USA.

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