Aim: Intestinal endotoxin is important for the progression of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Circulating endotoxin levels are elevated in most animal models of diet-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and NASH. Furthermore, plasma endotoxin levels are significantly higher in NAFLD patients, which is associated with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and increased intestinal permeability. By improving the gut microbiota environment and restoring gut-barrier functions, probiotics are effective for NASH treatment in animal models. It is also widely known that hepatic fibrosis and suppression of activated hepatic stellate cells (Ac-HSCs) can be attenuated using an angiotensin-II type 1 receptor blocker (ARB). We thus evaluated the effect of combination probiotics and ARB treatment on liver fibrosis using a rat model of NASH.
Methods: Fisher 344 rats were fed a choline-deficient/L-amino acid-defined (CDAA) diet for 8 weeks to generate the NASH model. Animals were divided into ARB, probiotics, and ARB plus probiotics groups. Therapeutic efficacy was assessed by evaluating liver fibrosis, the lipopolysaccharide Toll-like receptor (TLR)4 regulatory cascade, and intestinal barrier function.
Results: Both probiotics and ARB inhibited liver fibrosis, with concomitant HSC activation and suppression of liver-specific transforming growth factor-β and TLR4 expression. Probiotics reduced intestinal permeability by rescuing zonula occludens-1 disruption induced by the CDAA diet. Angiotensin-II type 1 receptor blocker was found to directly suppress Ac-HSCs.
Conclusions: Probiotics and ARB are effective in suppressing liver fibrosis through different mechanisms. Currently both drugs are in clinical use; therefore, the combination of probiotics and ARB is a promising new therapy for NASH.
Keywords: angiotensin-II type 1 receptor blocker (ARB); hepatic fibrosis; intestinal tight junction; non-alcoholic steatohepatitis; probiotic.
© 2018 The Japan Society of Hepatology.