Brazilian Portuguese Version of the Craniofacial Pain and Disability Inventory: Cross-Cultural Reliability, Internal Consistency, and Construct and Structural Validity

J Oral Facial Pain Headache. 2018;32(4):389-399. doi: 10.11607/ofph.2141.


Aims: To culturally adapt the Craniofacial Pain and Disability Inventory (CF-PDI) for a Brazilian population and to assess its psychometric properties, including internal consistency, reliability, and construct and structural validity.

Methods: A total of 100 female and male TMD patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD), with or without headaches, were included. Participants were assessed based on the Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD and the International Headache Society criteria. For statistical analyses, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used for assessing reliability (test-retest), Cronbach's alpha for internal consistency, Pearson rank correlation for construct validity, and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) for structural validity.

Results: The CFA provided the following three factors/domains for the Brazilian CF-PDI (CF-PDI/Br): (1) functional and psychosocial limitation; (2) pain; and (3) frequency of comorbidities. Scores for test-retest reliability and internal consistency in each domain were acceptable (ICC > 0.9; Cronbach's α > 0.77). Correlations between CF-PDI scores and jaw functional limitation, pain-related disability, pain catastrophizing, depression, neck pain-related disability, and kinesiophobia scores were confirmed in 89% (50/56) of the comparisons.

Conclusion: The CF-PDI/Br with three factors had sound psychometric properties. Therefore, the Brazilian Portuguese version can be used in clinical settings and for research purposes.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Brazil
  • Catastrophization / psychology
  • Culture
  • Depression / psychology
  • Facial Pain / physiopathology*
  • Facial Pain / psychology
  • Factor Analysis, Statistical
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Language
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Phobic Disorders / psychology
  • Psychometrics
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Temporomandibular Joint Disorders / physiopathology*
  • Temporomandibular Joint Disorders / psychology
  • Translations
  • Young Adult