Ferrocene-Containing Sterically Hindered Phosphonium Salts

Molecules. 2018 Oct 25;23(11):2773. doi: 10.3390/molecules23112773.


The synthesis and physical properties of the series of the ferrocenyl-containing sterically hindered phosphonium salts based on di(tert-butyl)ferrocenylphosphine is reported. Analysis of voltamogramms of the obtained compounds revealed some correlations between their structures and electrochemical properties. The elongation of the alkyl chain at the P atom as well as replacement of the Br- anion by [BF₄]- shifts the ferrocene/ferrocenium transition of the resulting salts into the positive region. DFT results shows that in the former case, the Br- anion destabilizes the corresponding ion pair, making its oxidation easier due to increased highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy. Increased HOMO energy for ion pairs with the Br- ion compared to BF₄- are caused by contribution of bromide atomic orbitals to the HOMO. The observed correlations can be used for fine-tuning the properties of the salts making them attractive for applications in multicomponent batteries and capacitors.

Keywords: DFT calculation; cyclic voltammetry; ferrocene; ferrocene-containing compounds; ionic liquids; phosphonium salts.

MeSH terms

  • Ferrous Compounds / chemistry*
  • Metallocenes / chemistry*
  • Molecular Structure
  • Organophosphorus Compounds / chemistry*


  • Ferrous Compounds
  • Metallocenes
  • Organophosphorus Compounds
  • ferrocenium
  • ferrocene