Effect of environmental variables and kdr resistance genotype on survival probability and infection rates in Anopheles gambiae (s.s.)

Parasit Vectors. 2018 Oct 26;11(1):560. doi: 10.1186/s13071-018-3150-8.


Background: Environmental factors, especially ambient temperature and relative humidity affect both mosquitoes and malaria parasites. The early part of sporogony is most sensitive and is affected by high temperatures and temperature fluctuation immediately following ingestion of an infectious blood meal. The aim of this study was to explore whether environmental variables such as temperature, together with the presence of the kdr insecticide resistance mutations, have an impact on survival probability and infection rates in wild Anopheles gambiae (s.s.) exposed and unexposed to a pyrethroid insecticide.

Methods: Anopheles gambiae (s.s.) were collected as larvae, reared to adults, and fed on blood samples from 42 Plasmodium falciparum-infected local patients at a health facility in mid-western Uganda, then exposed either to nets treated with sub-lethal doses of deltamethrin or to untreated nets. After seven days, surviving mosquitoes were dissected and their midguts examined for oocysts. Prevalence (proportion infected) and intensity of infection (number of oocysts per infected mosquito) were recorded for each group. Mosquito mortality was recorded daily. Temperature and humidity were recorded every 30 minutes throughout the experiments.

Results: Our findings indicate that apart from the effect of deltamethrin exposure, mean daily temperature during the incubation period, temperature range during the first 24 hours and on day 4 post-infectious feed had a highly significant effect on the risk of infection. Deltamethrin exposure still significantly impaired survival of kdr homozygous mosquitoes, while mean daily temperature and relative humidity during the incubation period independently affected mosquito mortality. Significant differences in survival of resistant genotypes were detected, with the lowest survival recorded in mosquitoes with heterozygote L1014S/L1014F genotype.

Conclusions: This study confirmed that the early part of sporogony is most affected by temperature fluctuations, while environmental factors affect mosquito survival. The impact of insecticide resistance on malaria infection and vector survival needs to be assessed separately for mosquitoes with different resistance mechanisms to fully understand its implications for currently available vector control tools and malaria transmission.

Keywords: Anopheles gambiae; Environmental factors; Insecticide resistance; Malaria; Oocyst; Plasmodium falciparum; Pyrethroids; Sporogony; Temperature.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anopheles / drug effects*
  • Anopheles / parasitology
  • Anopheles / physiology
  • Genotype
  • Humans
  • Insecticide Resistance*
  • Insecticides / pharmacology*
  • Larva
  • Malaria, Falciparum / parasitology
  • Malaria, Falciparum / transmission*
  • Mosquito Vectors / drug effects*
  • Mosquito Vectors / parasitology
  • Mosquito Vectors / physiology
  • Mutation
  • Nitriles / pharmacology*
  • Plasmodium falciparum / physiology*
  • Probability
  • Pyrethrins / pharmacology*
  • Temperature
  • Uganda


  • Insecticides
  • Nitriles
  • Pyrethrins
  • decamethrin