The Integrating Pharmacogenetics in Clinical Care (I-PICC) Study: Protocol for a point-of-care randomized controlled trial of statin pharmacogenetics in primary care

Contemp Clin Trials. 2018 Dec:75:40-50. doi: 10.1016/j.cct.2018.10.010. Epub 2018 Oct 24.


Background: The association between the SLCO1B1 rs4149056 variant and statin-associated muscle symptoms (SAMS) is well validated, but the clinical utility of its implementation in patient care is unknown.

Design: The Integrating Pharmacogenetics in Clinical Care (I-PICC) Study is a pseudo-cluster randomized controlled trial of SLCO1B1 genotyping among statin-naïve primary care and women's health patients across the Veteran Affairs Boston Healthcare System. Eligible patients of enrolled primary care providers are aged 40-75 and have elevated risk of cardiovascular disease by American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) guidelines. Patients give consent by telephone in advance of an upcoming appointment, but they are enrolled only if and when their provider co-signs an order for SLCO1B1 testing, performed on a blood sample already collected in clinical care. Enrolled patients are randomly allocated to have their providers receive results through the electronic health record at baseline (PGx + arm) versus after 12 months (PGx- arm). The primary outcome is the change in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) after one year. Secondary outcomes are concordance with Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) guidelines for simvastatin prescribing, concordance with ACC/AHA guidelines for statin use, and incidence of SAMS. With 408 patients, the study has >80% power to exclude a between-group LDL-C difference of 10 mg/dL (non-inferiority design) and to detect between-group differences of 15% in CPIC guideline concordance (superiority design).

Conclusion: The outcomes of the I-PICC Study will inform the clinical utility of preemptive SLCO1B1 testing in the routine practice of medicine, including its proposed benefits and unforeseen risks.

Keywords: Cardiovascular disease; Pharmacogenetics; Precision medicine; Statin-associated muscle symptoms.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial Protocol
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Atherosclerosis / blood
  • Atherosclerosis / drug therapy
  • Atherosclerosis / prevention & control*
  • Cholesterol, LDL / blood
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors / adverse effects*
  • Liver-Specific Organic Anion Transporter 1 / genetics
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Muscular Diseases / chemically induced*
  • Muscular Diseases / genetics
  • Pharmacogenomic Testing
  • Point-of-Care Systems
  • Precision Medicine
  • Primary Health Care*
  • Primary Prevention
  • Secondary Prevention
  • Simvastatin / adverse effects*


  • Cholesterol, LDL
  • Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors
  • Liver-Specific Organic Anion Transporter 1
  • SLCO1B1 protein, human
  • Simvastatin