The oil obtained from baru (Dipteryx alata Vog.) almonds exhibits high energy value and is reported in popular medicine for the treatment of rheumatic diseases and reproductive disturbances. Although baru oil is used in domestic cuisine, the chemical characterization of this oil and its effects on lipid metabolism are still poorly understood. Therefore, this study evaluated the fatty acid (FA) profile and the effects of baru oil on liver and aorta in a murine model of dyslipidemia. The chromatographic profile of baru oil showed high levels of unsaturated FAs, especially oleic acid. Saturated FAs, such as palmitic and lignoceric acids, were found in lower amounts. Hypercholesterolemia was induced in male Wistar rats by daily administration of a lipid emulsion by gavage for 15 weeks. Biochemical and histopathological analysis were performed on serum, aorta, and liver. The results demonstrated that animals developed marked hypercholesterolemia, liver steatosis, and increased lipid peroxidation in the aorta. Treatment with baru oil attenuated lipid peroxidation and drastically reduced liver damage, especially ballooning degeneration and steatosis. By restricting vascular and hepatic injury, this oil showed potential applicability as a functional food, reinforcing its use in popular medicine and domestic cuisine.