Marine Group I (MGI) Thaumarchaeota are some of the most abundant microorganisms in the deep ocean and responsible for much of the ammonia oxidation occurring in this environment. In this work, we present 35 sequences assembled from metagenomic samples of the first uncultivated Caudovirales viruses associated with Thaumarchaeota, which we designated marthavirus. Most of the sequences were obtained from cellular metagenomes confirming that they represent an important tool to study environmental viral communities due to cells retrieved while undergoing viral lysis. Metagenomic recruitment showed that this viral population is formed by very divergent entities with high intrapopulation homogeneity. However, metatranscriptomic analyses revealed the same differential expression profile with the capsid as major transcript, indicative of viruses during the lytic cycle. The cobalamine biosynthesis gene cobS, an auxiliary metabolic gene, was also highly expressed during the infection. These analyses expand our understanding of the global diversity of archaeal viruses.
© 2018 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.