Sharp-wave ripples (SWRs) are spontaneous, synchronized neural population events in the hippocampus widely thought to play a role in memory consolidation and retrieval. They occur predominantly in sleep and quiet immobility, and in primates, they also appear during active visual exploration. Typical measures of SWRs in behaving rats include changes in the rate of occurrence, or in the incidence of specific neural ensemble activity contained within the categorical SWR event. Much less is known about the relevance of spatiotemporal SWR features, though they may index underlying activity of specific cell types including ensemble-specific internally generated sequences. Furthermore, changes in SWR features during active exploratory states are unknown. In this study, we recorded hippocampal local-field potentials and single-units during periods of quiescence and as macaques performed a memory-guided visual search task. We observed that (a) ripples during quiescence have greater amplitudes and larger postripple waves (PRW) compared to those in task epochs, and (b) during "remembered" trials, ripples have larger amplitudes than during "forgotten" trials, with no change in duration or PRWs. We further found that spiking activity influences SWR features as a function of cell type and ripple timing. As expected, larger ripple amplitudes were associated with putative pyramidal or putative basket interneuron (IN) activity, even when the spikes in question exceed the duration of the ripple. In contrast, the PRW was attenuated with activity from low firing rate cells and enhanced with activity from high firing rate cells, with putative IN spikes during ripples leading to the most prominent PRW peaks. The selective changes in SWR features as a function of time window, cell type, and cognitive/vigilance states suggest that this mesoscopic field event can offer additional information about the local network and animal's state than would be appreciated from SWR event rates alone.
Keywords: bursting; electrophysiology; hippocampus; local field potential; memory; nonhuman primate.
© 2018 The Authors. Hippocampus published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.