Evaluating polymicrobial immune responses in patients suffering from tick-borne diseases

Sci Rep. 2018 Oct 29;8(1):15932. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-34393-9.

Abstract

There is insufficient evidence to support screening of various tick-borne diseases (TBD) related microbes alongside Borrelia in patients suffering from TBD. To evaluate the involvement of multiple microbial immune responses in patients experiencing TBD we utilized enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Four hundred and thirty-two human serum samples organized into seven categories followed Centers for Disease Control and Prevention two-tier Lyme disease (LD) diagnosis guidelines and Infectious Disease Society of America guidelines for post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome. All patient categories were tested for their immunoglobulin M (IgM) and G (IgG) responses against 20 microbes associated with TBD. Our findings recognize that microbial infections in patients suffering from TBDs do not follow the one microbe, one disease Germ Theory as 65% of the TBD patients produce immune responses to various microbes. We have established a causal association between TBD patients and TBD associated co-infections and essential opportunistic microbes following Bradford Hill's criteria. This study indicated an 85% probability that a randomly selected TBD patient will respond to Borrelia and other related TBD microbes rather than to Borrelia alone. A paradigm shift is required in current healthcare policies to diagnose TBD so that patients can get tested and treated even for opportunistic infections.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Area Under Curve
  • Borrelia / immunology*
  • Borrelia burgdorferi / immunology
  • Borrelia burgdorferi / pathogenicity
  • CD57 Antigens / metabolism
  • Coinfection / diagnosis*
  • Coinfection / immunology
  • Coinfection / microbiology
  • Humans
  • Immunoglobulin G / blood
  • Immunoglobulin G / immunology
  • Immunoglobulin M / blood
  • Immunoglobulin M / immunology
  • Lyme Disease / diagnosis
  • Lyme Disease / immunology
  • Lyme Disease / microbiology
  • ROC Curve
  • Tick-Borne Diseases / diagnosis*
  • Tick-Borne Diseases / immunology
  • Tick-Borne Diseases / microbiology

Substances

  • CD57 Antigens
  • Immunoglobulin G
  • Immunoglobulin M