Thoracic Air-Leak Syndrome Complicating Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem-Cell Transplantation

Lung. 2019 Feb;197(1):101-103. doi: 10.1007/s00408-018-0173-z. Epub 2018 Oct 29.


We report a case of thoracic air-leak syndrome, an extremely rare complication developed after an episode of organizing pneumonia due to graft-vs-host disease in a 19-year-old male. This unusual non-infectious pulmonary complication occurred 527 days after allogeneic HSCT and led to the patient's death within 1 month due to cardio-respiratory failure. Herein, we highlight chest-imaging aspects which are typical. Early detection by high-resolution chest CT could improve patient management.

Keywords: Air-leak; Allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation; Graft-versus-host disease; Pneumomediastinum; Pneumothorax.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Fatal Outcome
  • Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation / adverse effects*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Pneumothorax / diagnostic imaging
  • Pneumothorax / etiology*
  • Pneumothorax / therapy
  • Syndrome
  • Time Factors
  • Transplantation, Homologous / adverse effects
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Young Adult