Work of breathing during HHHFNC and synchronised NIPPV following extubation

Eur J Pediatr. 2019 Jan;178(1):105-110. doi: 10.1007/s00431-018-3254-3. Epub 2018 Oct 30.


Our aim was to compare the work of breathing (WOB) during synchronised nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (SNIPPV) and heated humidified high flow nasal cannula (HHHFNC) when used as post-extubation support in preterm infants. A randomised crossover study was undertaken of nine infants with a median gestational age of 27 (range 24-31) weeks and post-natal age of 7 (range 2-50) days. Infants were randomised to either SNIPPV or HHHFNC immediately following extubation. They were studied for 2 h on one mode and then switched to the other modality and studied for a further 2-h period. The work of breathing, assessed by measuring the pressure time product of the diaphragm (PTPdi), and thoracoabdominal asynchrony (TAA) were determined at the end of each 2-h period. The infants' inspired oxygen requirement, oxygen saturation, heart rate and respiratory rate were also recorded. The median PTPdi was lower on SNIPPV than on HHHFNC (232 (range 130-352) versus 365 (range 136-449) cmH2O s/min, p = 0.0077), and there was less thoracoabdominal asynchrony (13.4 (range 8.5-41.6) versus 36.1 (range 4.3-50.4) degrees, p = 0.038).Conclusion: In prematurely born infants, SNIPPV compared to HHHFNC post-extubation reduced the work of breathing and thoracoabdominal asynchrony. What is Known: • The work of breathing and extubation failure are not significantly different in prematurely-born infants supported by HHHFNC or nCPAP. • SNIPPV reduces inspiratory effort and increases tidal volume and carbon dioxide exchange compared to nCPAP in prematurely born infants. What is New: • SNIPPV, as compared to HHHFNC, reduced the work of breathing in prematurely-born infants studied post-extubation. • SNIPPV, as compared to HHHFNC, reduced thoracoabdominal asynchrony in prematurely born infants studied post-extubation.

Keywords: Non-invasive ventilation; Post-extubation support; Prematurity.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Airway Extubation / methods*
  • Blood Gas Analysis
  • Cannula
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Female
  • Heart Rate / physiology
  • Humans
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Infant, Premature
  • Intermittent Positive-Pressure Ventilation / methods*
  • Male
  • Noninvasive Ventilation / methods*
  • Respiratory Rate / physiology
  • Work of Breathing / physiology*