Combination of DC/CIK adoptive T cell immunotherapy with chemotherapy in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients: a prospective patients' preference-based study (PPPS)

Clin Transl Oncol. 2019 Jun;21(6):721-728. doi: 10.1007/s12094-018-1968-3. Epub 2018 Oct 29.


Background: Advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has remained challenging to treat effectively. This study aimed to investigate the clinical effects and safety of immunotherapy with dendritic cells and cytokine-induced killer cells (DC-CIK) administered with chemotherapy (CT) in this malignancy.

Methods: We have developed a new clinical trial design termed as the prospective patient's preference-based study (PPPS). Consecutive patients (n = 135) with advanced NSCLC were treated with DC-CIK administered with CT or mono-therapy (CT or DC-CIK alone).

Results: For all the patients, the median PFS was 5.7 months and the median OS was 17.5 months. The 1-year PFS and OS rates were 29.4% and 58.2%, respectively. The 1-year PFS and OS rates for DC-CIK plus CT were significantly higher than that in the group of patients who received DC-CIK alone and CT alone (P < 0.05). The number of adoptively infused DC-CIK cells was associated with clinical efficacy. After adjusting for competing risk factors, DC-CIK combined with CT and infused number of CIKs remained independent predictors of PFS and OS. Phenotypic analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells showed that CD8+CD28+, and CD8+CD28- T cells, changed significantly in all groups (P < 0.01). The CD3+ T cells increased in the chemotherapy plus immunotherapy and the immunotherapy alone group (P < 0.01), while CD3-CD16+CD56 T cells decreased in the chemotherapy plus immunotherapy and the immunotherapy alone group (P < 0.01).

Conclusions: DC-CIK combined with chemotherapy administration resulted in numerically superior PFS and OS compared with monotherapy in advanced NSCLC.

Keywords: Advanced NSCLC; Chemotherapy; DC-CIK.

MeSH terms

  • Adenocarcinoma / immunology
  • Adenocarcinoma / pathology
  • Adenocarcinoma / therapy
  • Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / immunology
  • Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / pathology
  • Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / therapy*
  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / immunology
  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology
  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy
  • Cytokine-Induced Killer Cells / immunology
  • Cytokine-Induced Killer Cells / transplantation*
  • Dendritic Cells / immunology
  • Dendritic Cells / transplantation*
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Immunotherapy, Adoptive*
  • Lung Neoplasms / immunology
  • Lung Neoplasms / pathology
  • Lung Neoplasms / therapy*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Patient Preference*
  • Prognosis
  • Prospective Studies
  • Survival Rate
  • T-Lymphocytes / immunology
  • T-Lymphocytes / transplantation*