Objective: The purpose of this study is to investigate the outcomes of epilepsy surgery targeting the subcentimeter-sized resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) epileptogenic onset zone (EZ) in hypothalamic hamartoma (HH).
Methods: Fifty-one children with HH-related intractable epilepsy received anatomical MRI-guided stereotactic laser ablation (SLA) procedures. Fifteen of these children were control subjects (CS) not guided by rs-fMRI. Thirty-six had been preoperatively guided by rs-fMRI (RS) to determine EZs, which were subsequently targeted by SLA. The primary outcome measure for the study was a predetermined goal of 30% reduction in seizure frequency and improvement in class I Engel outcomes 1 year postoperatively. Quantitative and qualitative volumetric analyses of total HH and ablated tissue were also assessed.
Results: In the RS group, the EZ target within the HH was ablated with high accuracy (>87.5% of target ablated in 83% of subjects). There was no difference between the groups in percentage of ablated hamartoma volume (P = 0.137). Overall seizure reduction was higher in the rs-fMRI group: 85% RS versus 49% CS (P = 0.0006, adjusted). The Engel Epilepsy Surgery Outcome Scale demonstrated significant differences in those with freedom from disabling seizures (class I), 92% RS versus 47% CS, a 45% improvement (P = 0.001). Compared to prior studies, there was improvement in class I outcomes (92% vs 76%-81%). No postoperative morbidity or mortality occurred.
Significance: For the first time, surgical SLA targeting of subcentimeter-sized EZs, located by rs-fMRI, guided surgery for intractable epilepsy. Our outcomes demonstrated the highest seizure freedom rate without surgical complications and are a significant improvement over prior reports. The approach improved freedom from seizures by 45% compared to conventional ablation, regardless of hamartoma size or anatomical classification. This technique showed the same or reduced morbidity (0%) compared to recent non-rs-fMRI-guided SLA studies with as high as 20% permanent significant morbidity.
Keywords: epilepsy surgery; functional connectivity; hypothalamic hamartoma; intractable epilepsy; resting state functional MRI.
© 2018 The Authors. Epilepsia published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International League Against Epilepsy.