Poor clinical outcomes associated with community-onset urinary tract infections due to extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2018 Dec;39(12):1431-1435. doi: 10.1017/ice.2018.254. Epub 2018 Oct 30.


Objective: Resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC) among Enterobacteriaceae (EB) is increasingly prevalent. We sought to determine the clinical outcomes associated with community-onset ESC-resistant (ESC-R) EB urinary tract infections (UTIs) in a US health system.

Design: Retrospective cohort study.PatientsAll patients presenting to the emergency departments (EDs) or outpatient practices with EB UTIs between 2010 and 2013 were included. Exposed patients had ESC-R EB UTIs. Unexposed patients had ESC-susceptible EB UTIs and were matched to exposed subjects 1:1 on study year. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the association between ESC-R EB UTI and the outcomes of clinical failure and inappropriate initial antibiotic therapy (IIAT).

Results: A total of 302 patients with community-onset EB UTI were included, with 151 exposed and unexposed. On multivariable analyses, UTI due to an ESC-R EB was significantly associated with clinical failure (odds ratio [OR], 7.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.16-15.82; P<.01). Other independent risk factors for clinical failure included infection with Citrobacter spp and need for hemodialysis. UTI due to an ESC-R EB was also significantly associated with IIAT (OR, 4.40; 95% CI, 2.64-7.33; P<.01).

Conclusions: Community-onset UTI due to an ESC-R EB organism is significantly associated with clinical failure, which may be due in part to IIAT. Further studies are needed to determine which patients in the community are at high risk for drug-resistant infection to help inform prompt diagnosis and appropriate antibiotic prescribing for ESC-R EB.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use
  • Cephalosporin Resistance*
  • Cephalosporins / therapeutic use*
  • Community-Acquired Infections / drug therapy
  • Community-Acquired Infections / epidemiology*
  • Community-Acquired Infections / microbiology
  • Enterobacteriaceae / drug effects
  • Enterobacteriaceae / genetics
  • Enterobacteriaceae Infections / drug therapy
  • Enterobacteriaceae Infections / epidemiology*
  • Enterobacteriaceae Infections / microbiology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Logistic Models
  • Male
  • Microbial Sensitivity Tests
  • Middle Aged
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Pennsylvania / epidemiology
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Urinary Tract Infections / drug therapy
  • Urinary Tract Infections / epidemiology*
  • Urinary Tract Infections / microbiology*


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Cephalosporins