Time Reproduction Deficits at Young Adult Follow-Up in Childhood ADHD: The Role of Persistence of Disorder and Executive Functioning

Dev Neuropsychol. 2019 Jan-Feb;44(1):50-70. doi: 10.1080/87565641.2018.1541992. Epub 2018 Oct 30.


No studies have examined if time reproduction deficits exist in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by adulthood. We followed 131 ADHD and 71 community control (CC) cases for 20+ years to young adulthood at which time they were given a time reproduction task. The ADHD group made smaller time reproductions and showed greater variability of errors at the longer durations compared to CC cases, whether ADHD was still present or not at follow-up. Nonverbal working memory and design fluency tests were related to timing errors while anxiety and depression were not. Childhood ADHD is associated with timing deficits at adult follow-up.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity / pathology
  • Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity / therapy*
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Executive Function / physiology*
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Time Factors
  • Young Adult