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, 5, 180214

Present and Future Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification Maps at 1-km Resolution

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Present and Future Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification Maps at 1-km Resolution

Hylke E Beck et al. Sci Data.

Abstract

We present new global maps of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification at an unprecedented 1-km resolution for the present-day (1980-2016) and for projected future conditions (2071-2100) under climate change. The present-day map is derived from an ensemble of four high-resolution, topographically-corrected climatic maps. The future map is derived from an ensemble of 32 climate model projections (scenario RCP8.5), by superimposing the projected climate change anomaly on the baseline high-resolution climatic maps. For both time periods we calculate confidence levels from the ensemble spread, providing valuable indications of the reliability of the classifications. The new maps exhibit a higher classification accuracy and substantially more detail than previous maps, particularly in regions with sharp spatial or elevation gradients. We anticipate the new maps will be useful for numerous applications, including species and vegetation distribution modeling. The new maps including the associated confidence maps are freely available via www.gloh2o.org/koppen.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no competing interests.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1. New and improved Köppen-Geiger classifications.
Part (a) shows the present-day map (1980–2016) and panel (b) the future map (2071–2100). The color scheme was adopted from Peel et al..
Figure 2
Figure 2. The confidence levels (%) associated with the new Köppen-Geiger classifications.
Part (a) shows the present-day confidence map (1980–2016) and panel (b) the future confidence map (2071–2100). These maps provide an indication of classification accuracy.
Figure 3
Figure 3. Projected changes in mean air temperature (°C) and precipitation (unitless) between 1980–2016 and 2071–2100 derived from climate model outputs.
Part (a) presents air temperature change offsets and part (b) precipitation change factors. The values represent the mean over all models and months.
Figure 4
Figure 4. Köppen-Geiger classifications, and associated maps, for the European Alps.
Part (a) present-day results from our study (1980–2016); (b) confidence levels associated with our present-day map; and (c) forest cover map (2000). Historic Köppen-Geiger classification maps for the three previous studies are provided as: (d) Kottek et al. (1951–2000); (e) Peel et al. (1916–1992); and (f) Kriticos et al. (1960–1990). Our future Köppen-Geiger map (2071–2100) is presented in (g) and the corresponding confidence map in (h). The representative period of each map is listed in parentheses. Thin black lines are country borders and the unmapped white area is part of the Mediterranean Sea.
Figure 5
Figure 5. Köppen-Geiger classifications, and associated maps, for the central Rocky Mountains (North America).
Part (a) present-day results from our study (1980–2016); (b) confidence levels associated with our present-day map; and (c) forest cover map (2000). Historic Köppen-Geiger classification maps for the three previous studies are provided as: (d) Kottek et al. (1951–2000); (e) Peel et al. (1916–1992); and (f) Kriticos et al. (1960–1990). Our future Köppen-Geiger map (2071–2100) is presented in (g) and the corresponding confidence map in (h). The representative period of each map is listed in parentheses. The thick black line at 49° latitude represents the Canada-US border.

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References

Data Citations

    1. Beck H. E.. et al. . Figshare. 2018 https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.6396959 - DOI

References

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