Background/objective: Poor dietary quality, measured by the Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010), is associated with risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and type 2 diabetes. The aim was to investigate the association between dietary quality and glycemic control in women with GDM.
Materials and methods: The study included 1220 women with GDM. Dietary quality was calculated by HEI-2010 score from a Food Frequency Questionnaire administered shortly after GDM diagnosis; higher scores indicate higher dietary quality. Subsequent glycemic control was defined as ≥80% of all capillary glucose measurements meeting recommended clinical targets below 95 mg/dL for fasting, and below 140 mg/dL 1-hour glucose after meals.
Results: As compared with Quartile 1 of HEI-2010 score, Quartiles 2, 3, and 4 showed increased adjusted odds of overall optimal glycemic control (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] 1.90 [1.34-2.70], 1.77 [1.25-2.52], and 1.55 [1.09-2.20], respectively). Increased odds of glycemic control were observed in Quartiles 2, 3, and 4 as compared with Quartile 1 of HEI-2010 score for 1-hour postbreakfast and 1-hour postdinner. Mean capillary glucose was lower in Quartiles 2, 3, and 4 of HEI-2010 score when compared with Quartile 1 for 1-hour postdinner (p = 0.03).
Conclusions: Clinicians should be aware that even a small improvement in diet quality may be beneficial for the achievement of improved glycemic control in women with GDM.
Trial registration: Clinical Trials.gov number, NCT01344278.
Keywords: diet; gestational diabetes; glycemic control; nutrition; pregnancy.