Background: We recently reported that successive ingestion of matured hop extract (MHE), produced by oxidation of hops, results in a reduction of body fat in healthy overweight participants. A combined effect of MHE and physical activity on body fat has not been investigated. Thus, we re-analyzed data from the previous study to explore the relationship between the effect of MHE and walking as an index of physical activity.
Methods: This analysis uses existing data from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel group study in which MHE (active) or placebo was given for 12 w to 200 healthy overweight Japanese, from May to December 2014. Correlation between the change in abdominal fat areas at 12 w and the number of steps taken per day was tested by Spearman's correlation coefficient test. The subjects were stratified using the average number of steps per day of Japanese into walking less and walking more subgroups (WL and WM, respectively) as follows: placebo (WL, n = 43; WM, n = 44) and active (WL, n = 49; WM, n = 42). Reductions in total, visceral, and subcutaneous fat area (TFA, VFA and SFA, respectively) were evaluated. The interaction effect between ingestion (active/placebo) and walking (WL/WM) was analyzed using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA).
Results: There was a significant negative correlation between the change in VFA and daily steps taken in the active group (r = - 0.208, P = 0.048). No significant correlation in TFA or SFA. Although the interaction effect in TFA was not significant, the main effect of ingestion was significant (P = 0.045). In contrast, the interaction effect in VFA was suggested to be synergistic (P = 0.055).
Conclusion: The results suggested that MHE ingestion combined with light intensity exercise would induce a greater reduction in VFA which would be beneficial for obese or overweight individuals in reducing obesity and obesity-related diseases.
Trial registration: UMIN-CTR UMIN000014185 registered 6 June 2014.
Keywords: Body fat; Interaction effect; Matured hop bitter acids; Matured hop extract; Obesity; Physical activity.