Stability, affinity, and chromatic variants of the glutamate sensor iGluSnFR

Nat Methods. 2018 Nov;15(11):936-939. doi: 10.1038/s41592-018-0171-3. Epub 2018 Oct 30.


Single-wavelength fluorescent reporters allow visualization of specific neurotransmitters with high spatial and temporal resolution. We report variants of intensity-based glutamate-sensing fluorescent reporter (iGluSnFR) that are functionally brighter; detect submicromolar to millimolar amounts of glutamate; and have blue, cyan, green, or yellow emission profiles. These variants could be imaged in vivo in cases where original iGluSnFR was too dim, resolved glutamate transients in dendritic spines and axonal boutons, and allowed imaging at kilohertz rates.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Color
  • Female
  • Ferrets
  • Fluorescent Dyes
  • Glutamic Acid / analysis
  • Glutamic Acid / metabolism*
  • Green Fluorescent Proteins / metabolism*
  • Male
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Microscopy, Fluorescence / methods*
  • Neurons / cytology*
  • Neurons / metabolism
  • Retina / cytology*
  • Retina / metabolism
  • Visual Cortex / cytology*
  • Visual Cortex / metabolism


  • Fluorescent Dyes
  • Green Fluorescent Proteins
  • Glutamic Acid