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, 7 (10), e989-e998
eCollection

Anatomic Double-Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction With Hamstring Tendon Autograft Through Single Femoral Tunnel and Single Branched Tibial Tunnel

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Anatomic Double-Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction With Hamstring Tendon Autograft Through Single Femoral Tunnel and Single Branched Tibial Tunnel

Naser Mohamed Selim. Arthrosc Tech.

Abstract

Conventional single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction cannot improve the rotational stability of the knee. Traditional double-bundle ACL reconstruction requires is demanding, complex, time- and implant consuming, and associated with a high incidence of complications. Double-bundle ACL reconstruction using a free quadriceps tendon autograft through 3 independent tunnels provides some advantage, but the antegrade graft passage, tibial tunnel confluence, and graft site morbidity represent disadvantages. This Technical Note describes a modification of double-bundle ACL reconstruction using the hamstring tendon autograft through a single branched tibial tunnel and a single femoral tunnel using 2 interference screws (Arthrex, Naples, FL). The gracilis tendon autograft is passed through tibial tunnel stem to the posterolateral tibial tunnel branch to the posterolateral position in the femoral tunnel. The semitendinosus tendon autograft is passed through the tibial tunnel stem to the anteromedial tibial tunnel branch to the anteromedial position in the femoral tunnel. Both grafts are fixed by 2 interference screws: 1 at the femoral tunnel and 1 at the tibial tunnel stem with the knee at 20° flexion.

Figures

Fig 1
Fig 1
Graft preparation. The gracilis tendon is tripled to represent the posterolateral bundle. The semitendinosus tendon is doubled to represent the anteromedial bundle.
Fig 2
Fig 2
Arthroscopic view of right knee at 90° flexion showing measurement of ACL tibial footprint (white dotted line). Black and yellow circles roughly represent the anterior and posterior ends of the anterior cruciate ligament tibial footprint, respectively. The footprint should be > 16 mm.
Fig 3
Fig 3
Arthroscopic view of the right knee showing anteromedial (AM) tibial tunnel drilling. (A) Anterior cruciate ligament tibial drill guide fitted on the center of the native AM bundle just medial to the posterior margin of the anterior horn of the lateral meniscus (black circle). (B) A 2.7-mm guide pin drilled at the center of the native AM bundle.
Fig 4
Fig 4
Arthroscopic view of the right knee showing posterolateral (PL) tibial tunnel drilling. (A) Anterior cruciate ligament tibial drill guide fitted on the center of the native PL bundle just medial to the lateral tibial spine (yellow circle) and the tip of the guide pin drilled at the center of the native anteromedial bundle. (B) A 2.7-mm drill guide pin drilled at the center of the native PL bundle.
Fig 5
Fig 5
Arthroscopic view of the right knee showing the intra-articular position of the guide pins. The guide pins should be separated by a distance not <10 mm (yellow dotted line) to avoid tunnel merging after tunnel drilling. (A) Arthroscopic view through the anterolateral portal. (B) Arthroscopic view through the slandered anteromedial portal.
Fig 6
Fig 6
An intraoperative view of a flexed right knee showing tibial tunnel drilling and reaming. (A) After drilling, the anteromedial (AM) guide pin (black arrow) is inclined 20° to the sagittal plane; the posterolateral (PL) guide pin (yellow arrow) is inclined 40° to the sagittal plane. (B) After reaming and before creation of the tunnel stem, the PL entry on the tibial cortex (yellow arrow) medial, posterior, and superior to the AM entry (black arrow) is shown.
Fig 7
Fig 7
An intratunnel view of the right knee through the stem of the tibial tunnel showing the anteromedial (AM) tibial tunnel branch (black arrow) and the posterolateral (PL) tibial tunnel branch (yellow arrow).
Fig 8
Fig 8
En face arthroscopic view of the right knee through the anteromedial (AM) portal shows the femoral tunnel after drilling, tunnel holes, and passing sutures. (A) AM tunnel hole (white arrow) in anterior, medial, and superior positions in the femoral tunnel. (B) Posterolateral (PL) tunnel hole (yellow arrow) in the posterior, lateral, and inferior position in the femoral tunnel.
Fig 9
Fig 9
Arthroscopic views of the right knee through the anterolateral portal (A-D, F) and anteromedial (AM) portal (E) showing steps of passing suture management. The suture loop passed through posterolateral hole in the femoral tunnel is retrieved through the PL tibial tunnel branch (A-D), and the suture loop passed through the AM hole in the femoral tunnel is retrieved through the AM tibial tunnel branch (D-F); then the 2 loops are passed to the tibial tunnel stem to the exterior and used for graft passage.
Fig 10
Fig 10
Arthroscopic views of the right knee through the anterolateral portal showing steps of graft passage. (A-B) The gracilis tendon graft (posterolateral bundle) is passed first; (C-D) second is the semitendinosus tendon graft (anteromedial bundle). (E) Graft after fixation with the knee is flexed. (F) Graft after fixation with the knee extended.
Fig 11
Fig 11
Arthroscopic views of the right knee through the anterolateral portal showing graft direction and orientation. The yellow dotted line represents the direction and orientation of anteromedial bundle graft in flexion (A) and extension (B). The black dotted line represents the direction and orientation of posterolateral bundle graft in flexion (A) and extension (B). The bundle grafts are crossed in flexion and parallel in extension.
Fig 12
Fig 12
Arthroscopic views of the right knee through the anterolateral portal showing that the 2 grafts occupy most of the footprint of the native anterior cruciate ligament at its tibial attachment (yellow dotted line; A) with no posterior cruciate ligament or notch impingement (B).

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