iEKPD 2.0: an update with rich annotations for eukaryotic protein kinases, protein phosphatases and proteins containing phosphoprotein-binding domains

Nucleic Acids Res. 2019 Jan 8;47(D1):D344-D350. doi: 10.1093/nar/gky1063.


Here, we described the updated database iEKPD 2.0 ( for eukaryotic protein kinases (PKs), protein phosphatases (PPs) and proteins containing phosphoprotein-binding domains (PPBDs), which are key molecules responsible for phosphorylation-dependent signalling networks and participate in the regulation of almost all biological processes and pathways. In total, iEKPD 2.0 contained 197 348 phosphorylation regulators, including 109 912 PKs, 23 294 PPs and 68 748 PPBD-containing proteins in 164 eukaryotic species. In particular, we provided rich annotations for the regulators of eight model organisms, especially humans, by compiling and integrating the knowledge from 100 widely used public databases that cover 13 aspects, including cancer mutations, genetic variations, disease-associated information, mRNA expression, DNA & RNA elements, DNA methylation, molecular interactions, drug-target relations, protein 3D structures, post-translational modifications, protein expressions/proteomics, subcellular localizations and protein functional annotations. Compared with our previously developed EKPD 1.0 (∼0.5 GB), iEKPD 2.0 contains ∼99.8 GB of data with an ∼200-fold increase in data volume. We anticipate that iEKPD 2.0 represents a more useful resource for further study of phosphorylation regulators.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Data Collection
  • Databases, Protein*
  • Eukaryota / genetics*
  • Humans
  • Molecular Sequence Annotation*
  • Phosphoprotein Phosphatases / genetics*
  • Phosphoproteins / metabolism
  • Phosphorylation
  • Protein Domains / genetics
  • Protein Kinases / genetics*
  • Protein Processing, Post-Translational
  • User-Computer Interface


  • Phosphoproteins
  • Protein Kinases
  • Phosphoprotein Phosphatases