A newly developed series of non-imidazole histamine H3 receptor (H3R) antagonists (1⁻16) was evaluated in vivo for anticonvulsant effects in three different seizure models in Wistar rats. Among the novel H3R antagonists examined, H3R antagonist 4 shortened the duration of tonic hind limb extension (THLE) in a dose-dependent fashion in the maximal electroshock (MES)-induced seizure and offered full protection against pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced generalized tonic-clonic seizure (GTCS), following acute systemic administration (2.5, 5, 10, and 15 mg/kg, i.p.). However, only H3R antagonist 13, without appreciable protective effects in MES- and PTZ-induced seizure, fully protected animals in the strychnine (STR)-induced GTCS following acute systemic pretreatment (10 mg/kg, i.p.). Moreover, the protective effect observed with H3R antagonist 4 in MES-induced seizure was completely abolished when animals were co-administered with the H3R agonist (R)-α-methylhistamine (RAMH, 10 mg/kg, i.p.). However, RAMH failed to abolish the full protection provided by the H3R antagonist 4 in PTZ-induced seizure and H3R antagonist 13 in STR-induced seizure. Furthermore, in vitro antiproliferative effects or possible metabolic interactions could not be observed for compound 4. Additionally, the predictive in silico, as well as in vitro, metabolic stability for the most promising H3R antagonist 4 was assessed. The obtained results show prospective effects of non-imidazole H3R antagonists as innovative antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) for potential single use against epilepsy.
Keywords: antagonists; anticonvulsant; antiproliferative action; histamine H3 receptors; maximal electroshock; metabolic stability; pentylenetetrazole; strychnine.